Wednesday, July 14, 2010

A New Classic for the Perfume Industry: Essential Oils: Art, Agriculture, Science, Industry and Entrepreneurship: a Focus on the Asia-Pacific Region by Murray Hunter


The blog post today is the Table of Contents of the book:

Essential Oils: Art, Agriculture, Science, Industry and Entrepreneurship: a Focus on the Asia-pacific Region by Murray Hunter

My review of this must-have book is on Basenotes, click here to read the review.  The book is massive, informative and although the title may fool you into thinking it's just for those who are interested in EOs in the Asia-Pacific region - it's not. Just peruse this nine-page (single spaced) TOC. It's a legacy book, it must have taken decades to compile, and I have it on my shelf next to Arctander, Guenther, et al.



Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter One: Introduction: The Development Issues
Summary
The Size of the Essential Oil Industry
Definitions of Essential Oils and Other Natural Aromatic Extracts
Product Strategy Choices
The Development Issues
Global Warming, the Food and Financial Crisis
Market Turbulence
Wild Collection and Threatened Plant Species
Bargaining Power of Producers
The Regulatory Environment
The Rural Crisis
Templating of Natural Aromatic Molecules
Research
Sustainability
Factors Leading to Success and failure
Planning and Opportunity Assessment
Management and Organisational issues
Financial issues
Technical Issues
Land Issues
Marketing Issues
Strategic Environment Issues
Issues of Fate and Nature
References

Chapter Two: The Nature of the Industry
Summary
The Flavour and Fragrance Industry
Components of the Flavour and Fragrance Industry
Essential Oil and Other Natural Producers
Wild Collection for Essential Oil Production
Small Holder Essential Oil production
Local Collectors
Plantation Production of Essential Oils
By-Product Production of Essential Oils
Produce Brokers and Agents
Research Institutions and Universities
Governments
Producers of Animal Extracts
Essential Oil Producers Associations
Chemical feedstock manufacturers
Aroma Chemical Manufacturers
Specialty Fine/Aroma Chemical Manufacturers
Trader/Exporter
International Trader
Flavour and Fragrance Houses
Flavour and Fragrance House Subsidiaries
Flavour and Fragrance House Agent
National Regulatory Systems
Standards Associations
End Product Manufacturers
Wholesalers and Retailers
Consumers and Derived Industry Demand
Essential Oils in the Cosmetic Industry
Essential Oils in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Essential oils in the Aromatherapy Industry
Essential oils as Intermediaries in the Production of Other Compounds
Essential Oils in the Organic Agro-chemical Industry
The Value Chain for Essential Oils
References

Chapter Three: Current Essential Oil Production in the South-East Asia Pacific Region
Summary
Australia
Eucalyptus Oil
Tea Tree Oil
Citrus oils
Peppermint Oil
Sandalwood Oil
Lavender Oil
Lemon Myrtle Oil
Lemon Tea Tree Oil
The Tasmanian Oils
New Zealand
Turpentine Oil
Manuka Oil
Lavender and Lavandin Oils
Other Essential Oils
Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands
Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Laos
Cambodia
The Philippines
Vietnam
References

Chapter Four: The Phyto-chemistry of Essential Oils
Summary
The Plant bolism
Carbohydrates
Lipids 
Amino Acids
Nucleotides
The bolic Pathways
Secondary bolites and Plant Defence Systems
Aromatic Compounds Found in Plants
Terpene Hydrocarbons
Monoterpenes
Sesquiterpenes
Oxygenated Compounds
Phenols
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Esters
Ketones
Lactones
Nitrogen Compounds
Sulphur Compounds
Some Important Aromatic Chemicals
Terpene Hydrocarbons
Phenols
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Esters
Ketones
Lactones
Nitrogen Compounds
Sulphur Compounds
Other Groups
The Analysis of Essential Oils
Chromatography
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
Other Methods of Analysis
Multidimensional Chromatography
Gas Chromatograph and GC- Mass Spectrometry Headspace Analysis
Thin Layer Chromatography
Infrared (IR) Spectroscopy
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Ultra-Violet (UV) Spectroscopy
Electronic Nose (E-Nose)
References

Chapter Five: The Extraction of Essential Oils
Summary
Distillation
The Fundamental Principals of Distillation
The Stages of Distillation
Steam and Pressure
Wilting Crops Before Distillation
Water Distillation
Water and Steam Distillation
Steam Distillation
The Condenser System
The Separator System
Hydro-Diffusion Distillation
The Extraction of Aromatic Materials Using Volatile Solvents
CO2 and Supercritical CO2 Fluid Extraction (SCF)
Superheated Water Extraction
High Pressure Extraction (HPE)
Microwave Extraction (ME)
Enfleurage
The Expression of Citrus Oils
References

Chapter Six: Developing Essential Oils
Summary
Exploring the Potential of Essential Oil Production
The Level of Commitment
The Challenges and Risk
Some General Success Characteristics
Strategy
The Essential Oil Development Process
References

Chapter Seven: The Screening and Regulatory Process
Summary
Opportunities for Essential Oil Development
The Screening Process
Sources of Potential Plant Opportunity Identification
Bio-Prospecting
Desktop Studies
Screening for Development Potential
The Characteristics and Classification of Essential Oils
Evaluating the Characteristic Strengths and Weaknesses of Essential Oils
The Regulatory Environment
The European Market
Food Additives and Flavour Materials
The European Chemicals Agency (EHCA)
Biocidal Products Directive
Scientific Committee on Consumer Products (SCCP)
The United States
Flavours and Food Additives
Fragrance Ingredients and Cosmetics
Pesticides and Biocidal Products
FDA Globalization Act of 2008
Japan
Food Additives and Flavours
Fragrance Ingredients and Cosmetics
The Agricultural Chemicals Regulation Law
The Chemical Substances Control Law
Australia and New Zealand
Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ)
The National Industrial Chemicals Assessment Scheme (NICNAS)
The National Registration Scheme – Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority
The ASEAN Region
Indonesia
Malaysia
Thailand
Vietnam
The Philippines
Consequences for Screening by the International Regulatory Framework
References

Chapter Eight: The Development Planning Process
Summary
Introduction
Environmental Analysis
1.      Rivalry Among Competitors
2.      The Threat of New Entrants
3.      Bargaining Power Over Suppliers
4.      Bargaining Power Over Buyers
5.      Substitutes
Factoring in the Dynamic Evolution of the Industry
Collating the Information into a Picture
Developing a Basic Strategy
Essential Oil Trade Price Fluctuations
Totally New Essential Oils
The Basic Principal Strategies of Essential Oil Development
Overall Cost Leadership
Differentiation
Focus
Diversifying into Essential Oil Production from Existing Farm Base
Diversifying into Agro-Tourism
Diversifying into General Essential Oil Trading
Diversifying into the Production of Consumer Products
Other Agro-Businesses Producing Essential Oils as Bi-Products
Market analysis
Supply chain
Selection of Basic Market Strategies
Planning Field and Technical Development
References

Chapter Nine: The Field Development Process
Summary
An Agricultural Enterprise as a System
Climate Change
Project Preparation and Early Work
Climate and Moisture
Plant Aromatic Material Composition and Pathways
Selection and Acquisition of Genetic Material for Planting
Seed Collection
Improvement of Genetic Material Through Recurrent Selection
Land Selection
The Socio-Economic Environment
Overall Land Topography-Ecology
Altitude
Soil
Infrastructure
Potential Crop Cycles
Procurement
Economics
Environmental Assessment
Local and Governing Laws
Farm Design
Propagation and Planting Material Development
Vegetative Propagation
Cuttings
Budding and Grafting
Micro-propagation and Tissue Culture
Fertilisers
Pest and Disease Control
Weed Control
Field Development – Preparation and Planting
Fire Breaks
Planting
Plant Populations and Spacings
Determining the Optimum Cultivation Parameters through Research and Demonstration Plots
Crop Field Maintenance
Fertilisers
Weed Control
Pest and Disease Control
The Level of Farm Mechanisation
The Size of Farm Machinery
Harvesting
Selection and Design of Extraction System
Distillation Effluent
Potential By-Products from the Distillation Process
Storage Facilities
Good Agricultural Practice (GAP)
Financial Modelling, Feasibility and Evaluation
References

Chapter Ten: The Organic Production of Essential Oils
Summary
Introduction
Basic Organic Farming Concepts and Practices
Crop Rotation
Cover Crops and Green Manures
Animal Manures
Intercropping
Composting
Mulching
Crop Diversity
Natural Fertilisers, Minerals and Supplements
Insect and Disease Control
Biorational Pesticides
Particle Film Barriers
Insecticidal Soaps and Plant Oils
Botanical Pesticides
Weed Control
Tillage
Farmscaping
Planning and Site Selection
Certification
Integrity and Record Keeping
Organic Farming in the Asia-Pacific Region
Conclusion
References

Chapter Eleven: The Application of Essential Oils
Summary
Introduction
The Classification of Odours
The Floral Family
The Woody Family
The Animalic Family
The Balsamic Family
The Agrestic Family
The Coniferous Family
The Marine Family
The Aldehydic Family
The Medicated Family
The Fruity Family
The Citrus Family
The Green Family
The Mint Family
The Spicy Family
The Herbaceous Family
The Classification of Flavours
Flavour, Fragrance and New Product Development
The Structure of a Fragrance
New Products and Fragrance Development
Flavours
The New Product Development Process
Types of New Products
New to the world products
New product lines (new to the firm)
Additions to existing lines
Improvements and changes to existing products
Product repositioning
Product Lifecycles
The development stage
The introduction stage
The growth stage
The maturity stage
The decline stage
Ideation
Idea Screening and Opportunity Identification
Concept Generation
Domestic, International markets and channels
Regulation and certifications
Tastes, trends, logistics, competencies
Finance
Relative competitive advantage
Chemical raw materials and packaging
The Development and launch Process
Manufacturing Plant Design
A Case Example of Developing an In-cistern Blue Block (Toilet Blue Water Block)
The development of the molding process
The development of the extrusion process
The Final Aspects of the Development and Launch
Intellectual property
Cosmetics and Personal Care Products
The Case for Natural Fragrances
a)      The difficulties of creating natural fragrances
b)      The difficulty in defining what is natural
c)       The difficulty of obtaining consistent quality natural raw materials
d)      The high cost of natural raw materials
e)      The limited availability of essential oils
f)        The limited number of natural materials
g)      Another step in creating a natural product
Natural fragrances as multifunctional ingredients
The future prospects of supply
Natural Perfumery
Aromatherapy
Household Products
Laundry products
Pine oil disinfectants
Insecticides and repellents
Mosquito and incense coils
Air fresheners
Orange oil and d-limonene cleaners
Agricultural Chemicals
Essential oil based fungicides/insecticides
Natural anti-stress preparations from betaines and essential oils
Essential oils in soap bases
Organic dusts
Plant extracts: pyrethrums
White oils
Herbicides
Pharmaceutical Products
Natural Isolates and Aroma Chemicals
Distribution Strategies
Agro-tourism
Fairtrade
Niche products for niche markets
Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP)
Standards
Organic and ecological product certification
Halal and Kosher certifications
Environmental compliance
Occupational health and safety (OSHA)
The Holistic and Focused Enterprise
References

Chapter Twelve: Enterprise Viability and New Crop Potential
Summary
Introduction – A Re-look at Opportunity and Personal Goals
Wild collection
Subsistence farming
Cooperatives
Community development projects
Small to medium family farms
Large scale farm/plantation
Producing essential oils as a by-product
New Essential Oil Crops
Anti-microbial
Anti-inflammatory
Anti-cancer
Anti-oxidant
Anti-ageing
UV absorbers and blocks
Skin whitening
Flavour and fragrance application
Aromatherapy application
Agricultural application
Feed-stocks for biological product transformations
Some Interesting Crops
Ambrette Seed Oil and Absolute
Anise Scented Myrtle
Artemisia annua
Cajuput subsp. “Platyphylla”
Caraway
Volatile fraction of coconut oil
Cryptocarya cunninghamii
Eucalyptus Oil (Blue Mallee)
Eucalyptus dives oil
Galanga
Hedychium spicatum
Kesom (Vietnamese mint)
Lemon Myrtle
Lemon Tea Tree
Manuka
Marsh Honey Mrytle
Melaleuca bracteata
Swamp Paperback (Rosalina)
Melaleuca quinuenervia  
Onion
Oregano
Pandan
Pandanus
Perilla (Shiso)
American pepper, Peruvian peppertree
Tea Tree (Australian)
References

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